Yuki Ikari/Staff reporter

On February 1, 2005, Canada introduced the Civil Marriage Act to extend the legal capacity for marriage for same-sex couples, making Canada the fourth country to allow same-sex marriage. It was introduced as Bill C-38, in the House of Commons. By the time the bill became law, it was legalized by court decisions in all Canadian provinces and territories except Alberta, PEI, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories.  Bill C-38 passed the House of Commons on June 28, 2005, and the Senate on July 19, 2005. The act became law when it received Royal Assent on July 20, 2005.

Canadian and LGBT Rainbow flag

Later in the 2010s, many of the LGBT issues were about youth and trans people. Bullying was one of the matters that had to be discussed in schools. Laws in Manitoba and Ontario made it required for all publicly-funded schools to accept student-organized gay-straight alliances.

Gay pride parade in Toronto

Trans people in Canada continue to struggle for equality. In 2017, Bill C-16 was passed. This amended the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code for better protection against hate crimes directed against LGBT individuals.

Even during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, LGBT communities are experiencing discrimination in all regions of the world. Last year, countries including Albania, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Malta, Ireland, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom have either enacted some form of ban or taken steps towards ending conversion therapy, the practice of attempting to change an individual’s sexual orientation or gender identity.


Civil Marriage Act (Wikipedia)

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights in Canada

Canadian Human Rights Act

Criminal Code of Canada

Global Trends in LGBT Rights During the Covid-19 Pandemic by Graeme Reid


Canadian and LGBT rainbow flag

Featured image: Rainbow flag breeze

Toronto Gay Pride 2008